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Singapore Water Story


Water demand in Singapore is currently about 430 million gallons a day (mgd) that is enough to fill 782 Olympic-sized swimming pools, with homes consuming 45% and the non-domestic sector taking up the rest. By 2065, Singapore's total water demand could almost double, with the non-domestic sector accounting for about 60%. By then, NEWater and desalination will meet the majority of Singapore’s future water demand.

As demand for water continues to increase in tandem with population and economic growth, we will need to plan and implement water infrastructure well ahead to secure an adequate and affordable supply of water for the future generations.

Growing from Strength to Strength

Through the years, we have embarked on an integrated, effective and cost-efficient way to meet the nation’s water needs with investments in research and technology to treat, recycle and supply water. We believe everyone in Singapore has a stake in water – as a necessary resource, an economic asset and an environmental treasure. 

Today, Singapore is internationally recognised as a model city for integrated water management and an emerging Global Hydrohub – a leading centre for business opportunities and expertise in water technologies.

Key Strategies

Our holistic approach to water management can be distilled into three key strategies:

  • Collect every drop of water
  • Reuse water endlessly
  • Desalinate seawater

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Watch our video on The Water Loop below:


Diversifying Water Supply

Over the last 50 years, we have built a robust and diversified supply of water known as the “Four National Taps", as listed below. Our tap water is well within the World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guidelines and is suitable for drinking without any further filtration.

1. Water from Local Catchment


Water from local catchment is a pillar of our sustainable water supply. Since 2011, the water catchment area has increased from half to two-thirds of Singapore’s land surface with the completion of the Marina, Punggol and Serangoon Reservoir.

PUB continues to explore ways to maximise our rainwater collection yield and strives to collect every drop of water that falls on Singapore.

Reservoir in the City
An iconic structure at the mouth of Marina Channel and the vision of the first Prime Minister of Singapore Mr Lee Kuan Yew more than twenty years ago, Marina Barrage creates Singapore’s 15th reservoir, Marina Reservoir.

2. Imported Water


3. NEWater


4. Desalinated Water

Conserving Water

Managing water demand is as important as securing an adequate supply of water. Achieving a sustainable level of water consumption and managing the impact of water on the environment take the commitment and participation of the community.

PUB has initiated a wide range of water conservation plans to encourage prudent water usage.  Programmes such as Mandatory Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme, Water Closet Replacement Programme, Water Efficiency Awards etc., cover both the domestic and non-domestic sectors.

On a personal level

Singapore’s per capita household water consumption was reduced from 165 litres per person per day in 2000 to 141 litres per person per day in 2018. The target is to lower it to 130 litres by 2030.

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Find out about how we can save water.

Engaging the Community

Active, Beautiful, Clean Waters Programme                  


Bishan AMK ABC Waters

Under the Active, Beautiful, Clean Waters (ABC Waters) Programme, we have optimised reservoirs, rivers and canals beyond their traditional functions of channelling water and water storage. Pockets of community spaces now offer a host of recreational options for people to enjoy, transforming Singapore into a vibrant City of Gardens and Water. More than 100 potential locations are identified for the implementation of this programme by 2030. 

Launched in April 2006, this programme is part of PUB's larger strategic objective to bring people closer to water so that they can better appreciate and cherish this precious resource.

Recognition and Volunteerism

  • Watermark Awards recognises individuals and organisations for their outstanding contributions towards the water cause.
  • Organisations and members of the public who are keen in raising awareness on water conservation and organising water related activities are welcome as Friends of Water.
Becoming a Global HydroHub

As Singapore continues to innovate and harness cutting-edge water and environment technologies, we play a key role in sharing water sustainability solutions. With Singapore’s water management experience and a vibrant local water industry, we welcome local and international collaborations to develop and commercialise new products and solutions. Read more about Global HydroHub

Research & Development

The environment and water industry is a key growth industry for Singapore. Since 2002, the government has committed S$670 million to foster leading edge technologies and spearhead the growth of the industry. Today, Singapore is a leading global hydrohub and home to a vibrant and thriving ecosystem of 180 water companies with more than 20 water research centres spanning the entire water value chain.

Singapore International Water Week

Beyond providing an environment for business and research, Singapore plays a key role in forging dialogue amongst the policymakers, water experts and industry leaders on water issues, challenges and solutions. To raise our profile as a global hydrohub, we host the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) on a biennial basis. Held in conjunction with the World Cities Summit and CleanEnviro Summit Singapore, this platform allows for the water industry players to showcase innovations, share policy developments and form partnership in research and development.

SIWW Water Convention

Key Events at SIWW

  • Water Leaders Summit
  • Water Convention
  • Water Expo
  • Business Forum
Smart Roadmap for Intelligent Water Management

Driven by increasing water demand, rising operational costs, manpower constraints and new challenges like climate change, PUB is leveraging digital solutions and smart technologies to strengthen its operational resilience, productivity, safety and security. The integration of Smart water technology will be a key pillar in Singapore's water resource management to achieve greater efficiencies, and faster response time in planning, operations and service delivery.

View enlarged version >>Smart PUB

PUB launched its SMART PUB roadmap, in its move to digitalise Singapore’s entire water system to improve operational excellence and meet future water needs. This is part of PUB’s continual investment in digital solutions to achieve smarter water quality management, network improvements, integrated customer engagements, and smarter work processes. 

View press release on SMART PUB roadmap

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